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Brown ArrowHealth Disparities

Healthcare disparities refer to differences in access to or availability of facilities and services. Health status disparities refer to the variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between socioeconomic and/or geographically defined population groups. [Both definitions are from the 2009 Medical Subject Headings (MeSH).]

  • American Indian and Alaska Native Health Portal and Arctic Health to Retire on December 16, 2019 Details

    The American Indian and Alaska Native Health portal ( will be retired on December 16, 2019. Please visit the MedlinePlus American Indian and Alaska Native Health page for information about this topic. The Arctic Health portal moved to a new home on September 28, 2018. The University of Alaska Anchorage will continue to host and maintain the publications database at Content from NLM-hosted Arctic Health has been moved to the new site and the search engine has been enhanced. Please bookmark for Arctic Health. The current NLM site ( will no longer be available after December 16, 2019.

  • Dialogue About the Workforce for Population Health Improvement: Proceedings of a Workshop (2019) Details

    Proceedings from a March 2019 workshop to explore the broad and multidisciplinary nature of the population health workforce.

  • Hate-Motivated Behavior: Impacts, Risk Factors, and Interventions Details

    This brief defines the parameters of hate-based behavior and its threat to the health of the overall population and describes the toll it can take on the health of its victims—which include depression, posttraumatic stress, and substance misuse. Additionally, structural discrimination reveals economic, housing, and educational disparities sometimes for entire vulnerable communities.

  • Housing for Health: Creating a Permanent Supportive Housing Program to Help People with Comlex Conditions Experiencing Homelessness Details

    The Los Angeles Department of Health's Housing for Health (HFH) division reflects the national movement for “housing first,” an approach that prioritizes providing individuals experiencing homelessness with housing, regardless of whether they are in treatment for their substance use, mental health, or physical health conditions (and, unlike most other housing programs outside this model, does not require sobriety as a condition of entry.) That view sees housing as necessary for the health of people experiencing homelessness. Additionally, HFH also embraces the philosophies of harm reduction, trauma-informed care, and, ultimately, “whatever it takes” to help individuals who are homeless.

  • Telemedicine and Pregnancy Care Details

    This brief outlines how telemedicine is currently used in obstetrical care, how these services are financed and regulated, and reviews federal efforts to expand the use of telemedicine, particularly to address maternal health disparities.

  • What Would it Take to Reduce Inequities in Healthy Life Expectancy? Details

    Brief identifies five strategies for the health care sector to help people address their health-related social needs and in turn narrow inequities in health and healthy life expectancy.

Health disparities data, datasets, statistical reports, measurements and validations, as well as tools to manipulate and visualize disparity data.
    Statistical Reports
    Disparities Measurements

  • Gender Equality Toolbox Details

    Toolbox is made up of tools that can guide foundation staff and partners in designing, managing and measuring the results and impact of gender intentional and gender transformative programs and investments.

  • Health Equity Report Card Details

    The Salud America! Health Equity Report Card generates local housing, transit, healthcare, and other data so you can drive the healthy change your community needs most.

  • ROI Calculator for Partnerships to Address the Social Determinants of Health Details

    This calculator is designed to assist community-based organizations and their medical partners in creating mutually advantageous financial arrangements for funding the delivery of social services to high-need, high-cost (HNHC) populations, by calculating the return on investment (ROI) from integrating social services with medical care.

  • Statistical Reports
  • 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey Report (2016) - (National Center for Transgender Equality) Details

    An examination of the disparities faced by transgender people, this report provides detailed statistical information gleaned from a survey of 27,715 respondents from all 50 states, the District of Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico, and U.S. military bases overseas.

  • Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2014, Featuring Survival (March 2017) - (National Cancer Institute (NCI), NIH) Details

    The American Cancer Society (ACS), the CDC, the NCI, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collaborate to provide annual updates on cancer occurrence and trends in the United States. This Annual Report highlights survival rates.

  • Anti-Gay Discrimination in Medicine: Results of a National Survey of Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Physicians (1994) - (GLMA) Details

    A statistical survey of bias against LGB physicians. Data was released in 1994.

  • Chartbook on Effective Treatment: National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Report - (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS) Details

    The chartbook is part of a family of documents and tools that support the National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Report.

  • Household Food Security in the United States in 2017 (2018) - (U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)) Details

    This report presents statistics from the survey covering households' food security, food expenditures, and use of food and nutrition assistance programs.

  • Human Needs Index - (Indiana University) Details

    A timely, multidimensional view of poverty-related need based on Salvation Army and federal data on meal assistance, housing assistance, and more.

  • National Healthcare Quality & Disparities Reports - (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS) Details

    This website includes access to all reports from this series, as well as a data query section, which allows researchers to find data based on geographic, subject, and topic area.

  • National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports - (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS) Details

    Provides state-specific health care quality information, including strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for improvement. The goal is to help state officials and their public- and private-sector partners better understand health care quality and disparities in their state.

  • New York City Community Health Profiles - (New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene) Details

    Reports on the health of 59 community districts across New York City. They contain over 50 measures of neighborhood health, emphasizing that our health starts where we live, work and play. These reports highlight the disparities among neighborhoods

  • Sexual Orientation Information Statistics - (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), HHS) Details

    2014 and 2015 data from the National Health Interview Survey.

  • Sexual Orientation and Health Among U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2013 - (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), HHS) Details

    A report of national estimates for indicators of health-related behaviors, health status, health care service utilization, and health care access by sexual orientation using data from the 2013.

  • The Report of the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey (2016) - (National Center for Transgender Equality) Details

    Results from a survey of 27,715 transgender people in the U.S. that looks at education, employment, family life, health, housing, and interaction with the criminal justice system.

  • Women of Color Health Data Book (2015) - (Office of Research on Women's Health, NIH) Details

    The fourth edition of this statistical summary examines the major causes of morbidity and mortality among US women of color.

  • Tools
  • AHRQ Health Care Innovations Exchange - (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS) Details

    The Innovations Exchange offers health professionals and researchers the opportunity to share, learn about, and ultimately adopt evidence-based innovations and tools suitable for a range of health care settings and populations.

  • American Indian/Alaska Native Center - (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS) Details

    Links to data tools within CMS that focus on American Indians and Alaskan Natives.

  • Annual Disability Statistics Compendium - (University of New Hampshire, Institute on Disability) Details

    The Annual Disability Statistics Compendium is a web-based tool that pools disability statistics published by various federal agencies together in one place. When working on legislative and other matters relating to persons with disabilities, the Compendium will make finding and using disability statistics easier.

  • Children's Health and Education Mapping Tool - (School-Based Health Alliance) Details

    Provides county-level GIS information on child health, education, and socioeconomic status, as well as health facilities and school-based health center locations.

  • DiversityDataKids - (Brandeis University, The Heller School) Details

    This tool allows you to analyze data by race/ethnicity, compare data across states, metropolitan areas, counties, large cities, and large school districts, and compare policy indicators across states.

  • - (Brandeis University, The Heller School) Details

    Ability to develop customized reports related to metropolitan areas.

  • HDPulse: An Ecosystem of Health Disparities and Minority Health Resources - (National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD), NIH) Details

    Site provides an ecosystem to characterize health disparities to motivate action to reduce health disparities. Interactive graphics and maps provide visual support for deciding where to focus public health disparities control efforts.

  • Health Disparities Calculator - (National Cancer Institute (NCI), NIH) Details

    Statistical software designed to generate multiple summary measures to evaluate and monitor health disparities (HD). HD*Calc was created as an extension of SEER*Stat that allows the user to import SEER Data or other population based health data such as National Health Interview Survey, California Health Interview Survey, Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

  • Health Equity Monitor - (World Health Organization (WHO)) Details

    The WHO Health Equity Monitor provides evidence on existing health inequalities and makes available tools and resources for health inequality monitoring.

  • Health Equity State Snapshots - (Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO)) Details

    Summaries of data collected through ASTHO's Health Equity-Minority Health Survey to assess health equity efforts in the U.S. states and territories.

  • National Equity Atlas - (PolicyLink) Details

    A data and policy tool for the community leaders and policymakers who are working to build a new economy that is equitable, resilient, and prosperous. The Atlas provides extensive data about racial equity and inclusion to allow users to examine how well diverse groups can access the resources and opportunities they need to participate and prosper.

  • Neighborhood Atlas - (University of Wisconsin) Details

    Tool allows for rankings of neighborhoods by socioeconomic status disadvantage in a region of interest (e.g. at the state or national level). It includes factors for the theoretical domains of income, education, employment, and housing quality. It can be used to inform health delivery and policy, especially for the most disadvantaged neighborhood groups.

  • PROGRESS framework: Applying an equity lens to interventions - (National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools) Details

    PROGRESS can help the adaptation of research evidence by identifying factors that may affect how the disadvantaged groups in your population engage with the intervention being planned or the method of implementation.

  • Pathways to Health Equity - (National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM)) Details

    An interactive tool which highlights promising community-driven approaches to advance health equity.

  • Return on Investment (ROI) Calculator for Partnerships to Address the Social Determinants of Health - (Commonwealth Fund) Details

    This calculator is designed to help community-based organizations and their health system partners plan sustainable financial arrangements to fund the delivery of social services to high-need, high-cost (HNHC) patients. HNHC patients, who account for a large share of overall health care spending, often have social needs, clinically complex conditions, cognitive or physical limitations, and/or behavioral health problems. Research shows that complex patients are likely to benefit from a holistic model of care that addresses the social determinants of health (SDOH) such as transportation, housing, and nutrition, in addition to medical needs.

  • Spatial Equity Data Tool: Measuring Disparities in Your City - (Urban Institute) Details

    This data tool was developed to help city officials, community organizations, and residents quickly assess spatial and demographic disparities in their cities.

  • U.S. News Healthiest Communities Rankings Details

    Tool scores nearly 3,000 counties on approximately 80 indicators across 10 categories that drive health outcomes. Population health and equity are the most heavily weighted categories.

  • Disparities Measurements
  • AHA Disparities Toolkit - (American Hospital Association) Details

    The Toolkit is a Web-based tool that provides hospitals, health systems, clinics, and health plans information and resources for systematically collecting race, ethnicity, and primary language data from patients.

  • Current Measures of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Federal Surveys (August 2016) - (Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology) Details

    A discussion of the data needs of the LGBTQ population, and a description of how the concepts of Federal Interagency Working Group on Measuring Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity (SOGI) are currently measured in U.S. Federal surveys

  • Eliminating Health Disparities: Measurement and Data Needs (2004) - (National Academy of Medicine) Details

    The report examines data collection and reporting systems relating to the collection of data on race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic position and offers recommendations.

  • Endorsement Summary: Healthcare Disparities and Cultural Competency Measures - (National Quality Forum) Details

    This report expands on the earlier work of the National Academies to establish a more detailed picture of how to approach the measurement of healthcare disparities.

  • Evaluations of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Survey Measures: What Have We Learned? (September 2016) - (Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology) Details

    This working paper identifies any current survey measures of aspects of sexual orientation and gender identity where measurement error has been assessed and determines the nature and extent of such error. It also describes best practices based on these assessments to minimize measurement error in surveys.

  • Federal Disparity Index (FDI) - (Indian Health Service (IHS)) Details

    An actuarial benchmark of health coverage for American Indians and Alaskan Natives that is equivalent to benefits in the Federal Employees Health Plan.

  • Methods and Measurement in Sexual & Gender Minority Health Research - (Sexual and Gender Minority Research Office, NIH) Details

    Data sources, examples of SOGI questions, and publications aimed at helping to develop better measure and methods for capturing information on the health of sexual and gender minority populations.

  • Sexual Orientation Information Questionnaire - (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), HHS) Details

    This section outlines the questions included in the National Health Interview Survey on Sexual Orientation.

  • Toward a Research Agenda for Measuring Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Federal Surveys: Findings, Recommendations, and Next Steps (October 2016) - (Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology) Details

    This paper proposes a research agenda to address unresolved conceptual and methodological topics that currently impede survey measurement in collecting data for sexual and gender minority populations and the methodological issues in collecting such data.

  • Well Being in the Nation (WIN) Measures - (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF)) Details

    The Well Being In the Nation (WIN) Measurement Framework offers a set of common measures to assess and improve population and community health and well-being across sectors. The framework is divided into three elements: core measures, leading indicators, and a full flexible set of measures.

  • Datasets
  • Compendium of Publicly Available Datasets and Other Data-Related Resources - (National Partnership to End Health Disparities) Details

    A listing of data and datasets related to health disparities.

  • HSRR (Health Services and Sciences Research Resources) - (National Information Center on Health Services Research and Health Care Technology (NICHSR), NLM) Details

    HSRR is a searchable database of information about research datasets, instruments/indices and software employed in Health Services Research, the Behavioral and Social Sciences and Public Health. The database includes brief descriptions of research resources and links to PubMed.

  • Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health - (Healthy People) Details

    As part of the Healthy People 2020 goals, statistical data and objectives are presented.

  • NHQRDRNet Online Query System - (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS) Details

    Online query system that allows you to access national and state data on the quality of, and access to, health care from scientifically credible measures and data sources. This is an interactive tool to explore data from the National Healthcare Quality & Disparities Reports.

  • Poverty Main - (U.S. Census Bureau, ESA) Details

    Poverty data from the US Census Bureau.

  • Salud America! Report Card on Food-Marketing Policies - (Community Commons) Details

    County-specific report card that highlights health issues and provides data, policy solutions, research and stories to begin and support health changes for Latino children.

  • Sexual and Gender Minority Clearinghouse - (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS) Details

    Clearinghouse is designed to help improve the understanding of sexual and gender minority health and disparities, and provide information on health care access, health-related risk behaviors, chronic health conditions, and use of preventive services. Use this Clearinghouse as a resource to find surveys that include questions about sexual identity, attraction, and behavior.

  • Surveillance Research: Health Disparities - (National Cancer Institute (NCI), NIH) Details

    The Surveillance Research Program provides data and statistics, research and collaboration, and monographs on health disparities related to cancer.

  • The Health Inequality Project Details

    A project that uses big data to measure differences in life expectancy by income across areas and identify strategies to improve health outcomes. Site provides access to documents, city ranking, and datasets.

Tools and toolkits that can be used to educate, provide guidance and framework for, and engage healthcare professionals on health disparities, population health, and the social determinants of health.