Brown ArrowComparative Effectiveness Research (CER)

Comparative effectiveness research is the conduct and synthesis of systematic research comparing different interventions and strategies to prevent, diagnose, treat and monitor health conditions. The purpose of this research is to inform patients, providers, and decision-makers, responding to their expressed needs, about which interventions are most effective for which patients under specific circumstances. To provide this information, comparative effectiveness research must assess a comprehensive array of health-related outcomes for diverse patient populations…[Internet.] Federal Coordinating Council for Comparative Effectiveness Research, definition; [cited 28 July 2010].

Access specialized searches for published research—PubMed, and research still in progress, HSRProj, and ClinicalTrials.gov—to help inform investigations of comparative effectiveness.

Additional information related to CER may be found in the Evidence-Based Practice/Health Technology Assessment Main Topic.


  • A Roadmap for State Policymakers to Use Comparative Effectiveness and Patient-Centered Outcomes Research to Inform Decision Making - (National Academy for State Health Policy (NASHP)) Details

    The purpose of this Roadmap is to guide policymakers in the use of CER and PCOR, to support the decision-making process in the health care system.

  • Alcohol Epidemiologic Data Directory - (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), NIH) Details

    Current listing of surveys and other relevant data suitable for epidemiologic research on alcohol.

  • CER Collaborative Details

    This collaboration from Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy, the International Society for Pharmaeconomics and Outcomes Research, and the National Pharmaceutical Council provides online tools to assist in usage of new research. Registration is required to use the tools.

  • Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) - (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS) Details

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) is a branch of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. CMS is the federal agency which administers Medicare, Medicaid, and the Children's Health Insurance Program. Provides information for health professionals, regional governments, and consumers.

  • ClinicalTrials.gov - (National Institutes of Health (NIH), HHS) Details

    Registry of federally and privately supported clinical trials conducted in the United States and around the world.

  • Comparative Effectiveness Research and the Environment for Health Care Decision Making: A 2012 Survey of Health Care Stakeholders - (National Pharmaceutical Council) Details

    NPC conducted a baseline survey (2010-2011) on a series of issues that describe elements of the changing decision-making environment. In 2011-2012, they re-surveyed stakeholders to assess changes in perceptions.

  • Developing a Protocol for Observational Comparative Effectiveness Research: A User's Guide - (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS) Details

    The intention of this User's Guide is to identify standards and best practices for designing observational comparative effectiveness research.

  • Drug Approvals and Databases - (U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA), HHS) Details

    Links to various FDA databases, i.e., Adverse Event Reporting post-marketing safety surveillance program, Orange Book, Clinical Investigator Inspection List, Bioresearch Monitoring Information System, Dissolution Methods, etc.

  • FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS): Questions and Answers on FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) - (U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA), HHS) Details

    Computerized information database designed to support the FDA's post-marketing safety surveillance program for all approved drug and therapeutic biologic products.

  • HSRProject (HSRProj) - (National Information Center on Health Services Research and Health Care Technology (NICHSR), NLM) Details

    Database of ongoing health services research projects. Search for studies relating to access, cost, and quality of health care, including patient outcomes, health services research methods, community needs assessments, etc.

  • HSRR (Health Services and Sciences Research Resources) - (National Information Center on Health Services Research and Health Care Technology (NICHSR), NLM) Details

    HSRR is a searchable database of information about research datasets, instruments/indices and software employed in Health Services Research, the Behavioral and Social Sciences and Public Health. The database includes brief descriptions of research resources and links to PubMed.

  • NIH RePORTER (RePORT Expenditures & Results) - (National Institutes of Health (NIH), HHS) Details

    The RePORT (Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools) website provides access to a variety of reporting tools, reports, data, and analyses of NIH research activities. One of the tools available on the RePORT site is the RePORTER (RePORT Expenditures and Results) module. RePORTER is an electronic tool that allows users to search a repository of NIH-funded research projects and access publications and patents resulting from NIH funding.

  • National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP) - (Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), HHS) Details

    NREPP is a searchable online registry of more than 350 substance use and mental health interventions. NREPP was developed to help the public learn more about evidence-based interventions that are available for implementation.

  • Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Clinical Decision Support - (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS) Details

    Includes access to the Patient-Centered Clinical Decision Support Learning Network; CDS Connect, an online repository of CDS artifacts; An Evaluation Project which will evaluate the overall initiative; and Funding Opportunities to translate evidence-based research findings into forms and CDS tools.

  • Preventive Health Services - (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS) Details

    This tool provides a listing of U.S. hospitals, including hospital demographics (location, hospital type) and 44 quality measures. Hospital Compare includes information on some Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers.

  • PubMed Health - (National Library of Medicine (NLM), NIH) Details

  • The Employee Health Communication Toolkit - (American Institutes of Research) Details

    Contains customizable materials to support consumers in identifying, understanding, and using health care information and evidence.

  • Why Not the Best? Comparative Health Care Performance Data - (Commonwealth Fund) Details

    Free resource for health care professionals interested in tracking performance on various measures of health care quality. It enables organizations to compare their performance against that of peer organizations, against a range of benchmarks, and over time. Case studies and improvement tools spotlight successful improvement strategies of the nation's top performers.


  • American Institutes of Research (AIR) Details

    \This project will serve as one of AHRQ's primary mechanisms for obtaining public input on comparative effectiveness research, and will oversee the agency's existing Effective Health Care Stakeholder Group.

  • Brookings Institution Details

    Nonprofit public policy organization that conducts independent research and provides recommendations.

  • CDC's Prevention Research Centers - (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), HHS) Details

    The Prevention Research Centers work as an interdependent network of community, academic, and public health partners to conduct prevention research and promote the wide use of practices proven to promote good health.

  • Center for Medical Technology Policy (CMTP) Details

    Private, non-profit organization that provides a neutral forum in which patients, clinicians, payers, manufacturers and researchers can work together to design and implement prospective, real world studies to inform health care decisions.

  • Center on Health Care Effectiveness - (Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.) Details

    Resource for policymakers, the public, and other stakeholders, offering broad-based expertise to provide objective evidence to inform today's difficult health care decisions. Link to reports, publications, webinars.

  • Centers for Education and Research on Therapeutics (CERTs) - (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS) Details

    National initiative to increase awareness of the benefits and risks of new, existing, or combined uses of therapeutics through education and research.

  • Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) - (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS) Details

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) is a branch of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. CMS is the federal agency which administers Medicare, Medicaid, and the Children's Health Insurance Program. Provides information for health professionals, regional governments, and consumers.

  • Commonwealth Fund - (Commonwealth Fund) Details

    Established in 1918 with the broad charge to enhance the common good, the mission of The Commonwealth Fund is to promote a high performing health care system that achieves better access, improved quality, and greater efficiency, particularly for society's most vulnerable, including low-income people, the uninsured, minority Americans, young children, and elderly adults. This site provides access to data, surveys and numerous publications.

  • Comparative Effectiveness Research Online Training Center - (Ohio State University, College of Public Health) Details

    These resources were developed with funding from the National Institutes of Health to provide training in Comparative Effectiveness Research methodology and application. While the IOM Priority Area for this program was Birth Outcomes, the modules were created to addresses CER methods and application more generally. There are 16 modules.

  • Comparative Effectiveness Resource Center - (ECRI Institute) Details

    Educational site with access to resources ranging from national policy conference recordings to perspectives from leading experts, as well as links to position statements by stakeholder groups.

  • Effective Health Care Program - (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS) Details

    The Effective Health Care Program is dedicated to facilitating decision making by providing findings from high-quality research in formats for different audiences.

  • Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPCs) - (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS) Details

    Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPCs) are top-ranking institutions where research reviews for the AHRQ Effective Health Care Program are made. EPCs are housed at 15 of the nation's top medical schools, universities, or medical centers. Access research reviews, original research reports, and summary guides.

  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Details

    Produces reports, presentations, etc., related to CER. Provides drug and medical device surveillance.

  • Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Details

    An independent philanthropy focusing on the major health care issues, including comparative effectiveness research, facing the nation. The Foundation is an independent voice and source of facts analysis for policymakers, the media, the health care community, and the general public.

  • Institute for Clinical and Economic Review (ICER) Details

    Mission is to lead innovation in comparative effectiveness research through methods that integrate considerations of clinical benefit and economic value.

  • NCI Cancer Control & Population Sciences: Quality of Care: Patient-Centered Communication and Care Coordination Research - (National Cancer Institute (NCI), NIH) Details

    A link to research opportunities related to PCOR.

  • National Library of Medicine (NLM) CER Efforts and Resources Details

    Links to NLM Technical Bulletin outlining NLM's various CER-related efforts and resources.

  • National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities (NPA) - (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)) Details

    The mission of the National Partnership for Action is to mobilize and connect individuals and organizations across the country to create a Nation free of health disparities, with quality health outcomes for all people. The campaign, launched by the Office of Minority Health (OMH) focuses on health status and health outcomes among racial and ethnic minority populations.

  • Natural Language Processing Workbench Web Services - (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Details

    Program tasked to develop an NLP Workbench for researchers and public health agencies.

  • PROMIS - Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement System ® - (National Institutes of Health (NIH), HHS) Details

    Network of NIH-funded primary research sites and coordinating centers working collaboratively to develop a series of dynamic tools to reliably and validly measure patient-reported outcomes (PROs).

  • Partnership to Improve Patient Care Details

    Group of healthcare organization representing patients, physicians and other health care providers, researchers and innovators, and other groups that have come together to promote comparative effectiveness research that supports patient access and informed health care decision-making and fosters continued medical progress.

  • Patient-Centered Clinical Decision Support (CDS) Learning Network Details

    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Clinical Decision Support Learning Network (PCOR CDS-LN) is a new Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)-supported effort that brings together diverse stakeholders to promote a sustainable community around developing, disseminating, and applying PCOR-enabled clinical decision support.

  • Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) - (U.S. Government Accountability Office) Details

  • Research Data Infrastructure Learning Community Details

    A network of federal programs dedicated to the ongoing development and use of data infrastructure resources for patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR).

  • The Lewin Group Center for Comparative Effectiveness Research Details

    The Center manages, conducts, interprets, and supports the use of comparative effectiveness research (CER) to inform decisions that help achieve the most effective patient outcomes, health care policies, and deployment of health care resources.

  • VA Health Services Research & Development Service - (Health Services Research and Development Service (HSR&D), VA) Details

    VA's Health Services Research and Development Service (HSR&D), works to identify and evaluate innovative strategies that lead to accessible, high quality, cost-effective care for veterans and the nation.


  • Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Process for Awarding Recovery Act Funds and Disseminating Results (2012) - (U.S. Government Accountability Office) Details

    According to AHRQ officials, the agency plans to disseminate the results of Recovery Act-funded CER using a range of existing mechanisms. These mechanisms include written products, training programs, social media tools, and AHRQ's website. AHRQ is also developing additional strategies to disseminate CER results. AHRQ awarded four contracts using Recovery Act funds totaling approximately $42.3 million to promote innovative approaches for disseminating CER results. A variety of efforts are conducted under these contracts, including efforts to educate clinicians and develop regional dissemination offices.

  • H.R. 2502 - Comparative Effectiveness Research Act of 2009 - (Library of Congress) Details

    On May 19, 2009, Rep. Kurt Schrader (D-OH), joined by 11 co-sponsors, introduced H.R. 2502, "The Comparative Effectiveness Research Act of 2009." This legislation would establish a private, non-profit organization, the Health Care Comparative Effectiveness Research Institute, to conduct research evaluating and comparing the implications and outcomes of two or more health care therapies in treating a particular medical condition.

  • HHS Research Awards: Use of Recovery Act and Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Funds for Comparative Effectiveness Research - (U.S. Government Accountability Office) Details

    The 2011 Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, required GAO to report on HHS's funding of CER under the Recovery Act and PPACA (Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act). This June 2011 report includes information on the expenditures HHS has made using these funds, the entities that have received such funding, and the purpose of the funding.

  • Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) - (U.S. Government Accountability Office) Details

  • Public Law 111-152, Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 Details

    Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 - Title I: Coverage, Medicare, Medicaid, and Revenues - Subtitle A: Coverage - (Sec. 1001) Amends Internal Revenue Code provisions added by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) to revise the formula for calculating the refundable tax credit for premium assistance for coverage under a qualified health plan by establishing a sliding scale from the initial to the final premium percentage for individuals and families with household incomes up to 400% of the federal poverty line. Requires adjustments, after 2014 and after 2018, of the initial and final premium percentages to reflect the excess (if any) of the rate of premium growth over the rate of growth of income and the consumer price index.

  • Public Law No: 111-148-March 23, 2010, Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act - (Government Publishing Office) Details

    Link to the PDF of the full text of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.